Volume 1, Issue 4: Letterboxd
Mark Rappaport Retrospective, Tom Cruise, Multi-screen Essays
One of the goals of The Video Essay Podcast (perhaps the chief goal) is to answer an ultimately unanswerable question: what is a video essay? I have asked some version of this question to (I think) every guest I’ve had on the show. Chloé Galibert-Laîné has provided one of the most compelling answers thus far:
“I’m not sure I know exactly what a video essay is or is supposed to be… We are using this term as a way to bring a community together.”
Grace Lee, Ariel Avissar, and I began the introduction to this year’s Sight & Sound poll of the “best” video essays with Chloé’s quote as a way of framing the list, which included documentaries, essay films, performances, online video essays, gallery installations, and more. The selections ranged in length from 51 seconds to 4.5 hours! While there are many problems with list-making, I think one of the benefits is that someone generally familiar with the concept of “video essay” might walk away from the list more unsure of what a video essay “is” than when they first started reading. Thus, the question becomes not “what is a video essay?” but “what can a video essay be?”
And here is the question I wish to pose today: are video essays films? I know many have already weighed in on this question. Catherine Grant has called video essays, “short films about films” or “liquid criticism.” I raise this question in part because I noticed recently that several video essays have made their way on to Letterboxd, which draws its metadata from The Movie Database. I noticed this first when looking at kogonada’s Columbus on Letterboxd, which you see beside “Eyes of Hitchcock” and “What is Neorealism?” below:
I began searching some more names and found that the same is true for Mark Rappaport, which is not surprising for a work like Rock Hudson’s Home Movies (1992) but is perhaps so with his more typical video essay, “The Empty Screen.” Eight works by Kevin B. Lee are on Letterboxd, including, of course, Transformers: The Premake (2014), but his vast body of online video essay work is mostly missing. The same is true for Chloé’, whose desktop documentary Watching The Pain of Others (2018) is one of five works listed. There are two works by Cristina Álvarez López and Adrian Martin. Shannon Strucci (our most recent guest!) has only one work listed, and that is her epic, two-hour-long video essay, “Fake Friends Episode 2: parasocial hell”, which we discussed at length on the show. Other video essayists, including Catherine Grant, Tony Zhou, and Michael Tucker have no work listed (or at least none that I could find)!
I have not checked-in with any of the persons mentioned above, so I do not know how or why their work was or was not added. Perhaps it was added by others? Or perhaps larger projects were added instead of more traditional online video essays? I don’t know! (Please let me know!) And this is not to suggest that Letterboxd or the The Movie Database is an arbiter or what is or is not a video essay or a film, or that work found on Letterboxd is better or more significant than work not found on the platform. But, I do think it is an interesting way to think about this question of whether video essays are films.
On a recent episode of the show, Leigh Singer and I discussed kogonada’s video essays, and how any study of him as a filmmaker would have to include his videographic work, just as it is difficult to discuss Truffaut’s body of work without mentioning Hitchcock. (If he were alive today, Truffaut would definitely be a video essayists btw.) kogonada’s video essays reveal not only his potential influences, but also how he thinks as a filmmaker. Many video essayists (myself included) often go out of our way to say somer version of “I’m not pretending to be a filmmaker!" when discussing our work. It’s an important distinction for many reasons, chiefly because it acknowledges the amount of labour that goes into making, say, a feature film. However, I do wonder whether we do videographic criticism a disservice by drawing such a firm distinction. After all, the video essay never pretends to be a feature film, nor would anyone mistake one for the other. And, as I have already mentioned, videographic criticism requires one to think and edit like a filmmaker and cultivate an individual style. The discussion of such styles is at the heart of the podcast.
If Letterboxd is any indication, it seems that video essayists by filmmakers are more likely to be labeled films or short films, whereas video essays by non-filmmakers (I use all of these terms very, very loosely) seem to sit in more of a grey area. What are we to make of this? Should more video essays be uploaded to The Movie Database and available to log on Letterboxd? I think so! I think what matters more than labeling video essays one thing or another is that they are in conversation with all kinds of moving images, and a platform like Letterboxd is key to facilitating those viewing experiences. What do you think?
News & Notes
On Monday, the Munich Film Museum will begin a 7-week retrospective on the work of Mark Rappaport, the “Godfather of Video Essays”, according to Kevin B. Lee. View the trailer above. More information and a complete schedule here.
The audiovisual essay journal Tecmerin issued a new CFP and is accepting submissions until August 1, 2020.
The Small File Film Festival is accepting submissions until May 30th.
Student Spotlight: A Q&A with Lucie Formánková
Each week, the newsletter will aim to feature a video essay made by a student along with a short Q&A. Is there a student or former student of yours you would like to see highlighted? Email email@example.com.
Lucie Formánková created this video essay in the Department of Film Studies at Charles University in Prague under the supervision of Jiří Anger and Kevin B. Lee.
Will DiGravio: What drew you to Tom Cruise? What were you able to capture about his performances in a video essay that you could not have captured in a written essay?
Lucie Formánková: The idea came after making a short little audiovisual essay on the question: “Is Tom Cruise a good actor?” as a part of a seminar on audiovisual essays with Jiri Anger. Since I really enjoyed deep diving into Cruise’s career and analyzing his acting abilities, I decided to take the theme further and ask, “What kind of actor is he?” I found a study on acting techniques and found out which one he is allegedly using himself. What I love about video essay making is you can add a bit of humor into an otherwise serious piece of work. When you choose Tom Cruise as your material for an analysis you cannot take yourself too seriously. I think video essay is a great tool for acting analysis though because you can’t really describe various facial expressions with words as good as using actual footage.
WD: Was it hard to distill a career down to an essay? How did you navigate that challenge? Did you know which films you were going to use before you made the essay?
LF: Thankfully I did not need to include all his action movies because those are not that interesting when it comes to acting abilities. I went through movies where I knew he is making his famous poker face, wide smile and expressive hand movement. Surprisingly it was not too hard. I found distilling his career down to an essay actually quite easy. Combining different kinds of data with moving pictures could say more in a few seconds than a couple of sentences.
WD: I found the layering technique very effective, and in particular how the comparisons just sort of appeared on screen. Why did you select this technique?
LF: I selected specific scenes from movies that are considered to have his best acting performances according to American academy. Then I needed to show the similarities in his facial expressions and body movement, so I just tried to add them at the right time. The aim of the placement of these clips was also to have sort of comedic timing.
WD: What was the most challenging part about making this video essay?
LF: The hardest part was probably the explanation of the Meisner technique. Without voice actor I had to write everything down and somehow make it understandable and amusing. I still do not think I was successful in that intention. Next time if I decide to make another acting analysis I will definitely use a voiceover instead of written word. Playing around with music and clips is just added pleasure.
Listeners of the podcast are currently making multi-screen compositions! Click here for the instructions, which are taken from The Videographic Essay: Practice & Pedagogy by Mittell, Keathley, and Grant. Click here for a Vimeo showcase of all the submissions we’ve received. And thanks to Ian Garwood for being the first to send one in!
Episode 15. Shannon Strucci
Don’t forget to listen to our most recent episode! Shannon Strucci joins the show to discuss life as a YouTube video essayist, developing one’s own video essay aesthetic, the relationship between video essay making and podcasting, and more! We also discuss Shannon’s epic video essay “Fake Friends Episode 2: parasocial hell” and Harry S. Plinkett’s (Mike Stoklasa) review of Star Wars Episode I: Phantom Menace, a seven part video produced by Red Letter Media.